The following is part of a Draft Introduction, which will describe what is planned to be in the book and then give an example of how an individual family's combined information will be presented and what it all means.|
WHO IS IN THE BOOK?
This book is intended to be a snapshot of all those who were living in Lunenburg County at the time of the 1881 Census. It excludes those who died before 1881 or who were born after April 1881.
Frederick KNICKLE appears to be the earliest born listed. He was born in 1789 and died in 1887 age 98. At the other end of the spectrum is Alice KEDDY-HILTZ born 1879 and died in 1975 at age 95. Thus this data base covers peoples who were alive over a nearly 200 year span.
ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
The book is organized into three main sections:
1. Master Index of Individuals.
This lists alphabetically all the individuals described in the book. The majority are those found in the 1881 Census. In addition to the names, we find their age as of April 1881, from which we can estimate their year of birth. The index then gives marital status as Married (M), Widow/widower (W), or Single (if blank). From the Census and the AF Church Map, we can make an estimate of the community they are living in. The Index concludes with an alpha-numeric designation unique to each individual. The designation is comprised of a letter designation of the Census Polling District (with a possible subdistrict number), the family number within that district, and the position within the family (A= head of household). Spellings of names among the different sources of information is inconsistent, so to aid in indexing, a standard spelling for first and last names was adopted. Actual spellings as found on the source documents are included in the next section.
2. Master Index of Families
This lists alphabetically all Census Polling Districts and then within each district numerically by family number all available information on each individual in each family. The kinds of information are described below.
3. Community Maps
These are maps for individual communities derived from the A F Church Maps of about 1881. There are also wider excerpts from modern topographical maps to show where the communities are today.
The following Miscellaneous Tables are included:
1. Index of Variations in Spellings of Given Names
2. Index of Variations in Spellings of Family Names
3. Index of Community Names Codes
4. Index of Cemetery Names and Numbers
DESCRIPTION OF DATA SOURCES
Each source examined in the preparation of this book is described in some detail and two examples of how all of them were integrated are then given.
Ambrose F. Church Map
Ambrose CHURCH was a surveyor living in Halifax. In 1864, his company was awarded a contract to prepare maps for each county in Nova Scotia that showed geographical information such as bodies of water and land, roads, rail lines, communities, and buildings occupied as schools, businesses, and homes. In the case of homes, the names of the heads of households were given, although only first initials were provided. It is uncertain when the map for Lunenburg County was prepared - 1883 is an educated guess printed on some maps. My guess is closer to 1881. Standard family name spellings were adopted, e.g LANGILL (for the more common LANGILLE); HARMON (HERMAN); VENOT (VEINOT); WYNOCK (WEINACHT). The Church Map was scanned by community and opposite each name, where known, was added the family number taken from the census polling district (see below).
Modern Topographical Maps
Other than showing the location of some cemeteries (“C”), there is no genealogical information in these maps. They are included for context.
1881 Census for Canada
This provides a wealth of information including first and last names, gender, marital status (married, widow(er)ed, single), age as of April 1881 (and a derived birth year), ethnic origin, where born (Province or country), occupation, religion, and community. Other members of the family may also be included such as spouses, children (single or married), aged parents, servants and borders. First and family names are frequently misspelled (see listings). Likewise, ages are frequently incorrect. See some of the other sources of age information below.
Community assignments are generally made on the basis of likely correspondence with names on the Church Map. Community Names are given a six letter shorthand according to the following formula: Single name communities take the first six letters (e.g. Bridgewater => Bridge); Double name communities take the first three letters of each name (e.g. Lower LaHave => LowLaH, North West => NorWes); Triple name communities take the first three letters of the first name, the first two letters of the second name and the first letter of the last name (e.g. North West Cove => NorWeC); there are a few exceptions (e.g. LunenW, LunenM, and LunenE for the west, middle, and east sections of the old town, respectively). When Census names are not found on the Church Map, their community is “estimated” by correspondence with adjacent families that are in an unequivocally assigned community; the community name is followed by a ? mark.
Each individual is given a unique alpha-numeric designation derived from the Census information. E.g. Allan W KEDDY has designation F1-142C. F1 means Chester Polling District 1, 142 means he is in the 142nd family in that district, and C means he is the third person listed in that family. When all the data was being assembled, each piece for an individual was tagged with the unique alpha-numeric designation and the whole data base was sorted on this designation to pull everything together for an individual.
McAlpine’s County Directories
These directories, produced in 1869, 1870, 1880, and 1890-6 list heads of households, occupations, and communities. In some instances where there may be several within a community that have the same name, relation to a father may be given. Names are typically male. For people living in Lunenburg, street names may also be included. Community names may correspond to current names or may cover an area wider than the modern community.
This gives the year the marriage was registered (usually the year of the marriage, except perhaps at year end when there may be some carry over), the registration sequence number for the year, and the page in the registry where the full entry may be found. For example, Freeman CORKUM’s marriage in the Index is reported as 1879-96-164. Given names may include second name or initial. Family name spellings tend to be standardized for a given year but may vary from year to year. The Index is alphabetical by first letter then by sequence number. It is not cross referenced, so once you locate the Index citation for Freeman, you normally have to search the whole of the 1868 listing until you come to the same number for his wife, which in this case is Mary Ann NORMAN. Unexpectedly, there are quite a few marriages in the Index where only one spouse is listed.
Marriage Registration Record
This record provides a great deal of valuable information. Typically it gives both the first and second given name as well as the family name for each of the couple. Following the date, church and community where the marriage took place, it will also give their ages at marriage (from which you can estimate birth year). It will then give where they were born and where they were living at the time of marriage. The husband’s occupation is then listed. Next it will give the names of both sets of parents and the fathers’ occupations. The master Indexes may reveal that one or more of the parents were alive in 1881. If so, their family number is given. In the case of a widow remarrying, her married family name is given, however from her parent’s family name you can get her maiden name. Finally, it may give who the witnesses were, who might be siblings or close friends. While many of the names of married couples show up in both the Marriage Index and Marriage Registration Record, there are quite a few that show up in only one or the other of these two sources.
The Index to Lunenburg County Vital Statistics from Local Newspapers on Microfilm pre - 1900
The records are indexed alphabetically by family and given name and provide name of spouse or parent, birth, christening, marriage, and death dates along with a reference to which newspaper and page as well as publication date in which the events are described. Finally, the location of the microfilm is given - typically the Fisheries Museum of the Atlantic (FMA) in Lunenburg or the SSGS.
These provide birth dates (complete or year only), death dates (complete or year only), age at death, possible spouse name and dates and occasionally names and dates of children. In a very few instances, maiden names may be included. This information was taken from Cemetery Inscriptions in the four volume set published by the SSGS and on the Lunenburg GenWeb Site. Each cemetery has been given a number (based on the system used by the SSGS) and citations to locations of these cemeteries is made to the author’s 2003 book “ Maps Associated with Lunenburg Family History”.
Index of Lunenburg County Probated Wills
The death dates from the Cemetery Inscriptions provided permitted a linkage to the Probated Wills Index. Here, one finds the name of the deceased, in which Will or Act Book and page where the probated will has been recorded and the estimated year of probate (usually accurate to within two years). If there is no mention of a Will, then assume that one does not exist. Within the wills themselves, one usually finds references to spouses and living children and grandchildren, and occasionally to spouses of children. Land holdings may also be included.
Records from Dana L. Sweeney Funeral Home 1908-1932
This Lunenburg funeral home has provided the SSGS with a copy of its records from about 1908 to 1932 and then 1947 to a decade or so ago. The first time span has been abstracted. Information provided includes, place of death, cause of death, name, age, date of death (from which you can estimate birth year),where born, religion, cemetery, church, date of funeral, and minister. The last two details were not abstracted.
Don Shankle’s Birth, Marriage, and Death Dates Records
Useful dates for the older individuals were found on the late Don SHANKLE’s web site. These were abstracted by Don from church records.
Let us say that you are interested in Freeman CORKUM and his family. How to find out about him? In sequence look in the
- Index of Individuals,
- Index of Families, and
- Community Maps.
STEP 1. INDEX of INDIVIDUALS
Look for Freeman in the INDEX of INDIVIDUALS. There one finds four possibilities.
CORKUM Freeman 60 1821 M WesLaH M-34 A
CORKUM Freeman 6 1875 LbrgE A1-55 C
CORKUM Freeman 5 1876 CorIsl A3-361 D
CORKUM Freeman F 4 1877 FelSou B-315 C
In the above example, let’s say you know that in 1881 the individual of interest was married. Thus the first Freeman is the one to followup.
This index tells us that Freeman was 60 in 1881 (thus born about 1821), was married (M), was living in West LaHave in 1881, was in Conquerall Bank Census District (M), was the 34th family in that district, and is the head of household (A).
STEP 2. INDEX of FAMILIES
Go to Family M-34 in the FAMILY INDEX
STEP 3. COMMUNITY MAPS
P 06 || |
Census|| CORKUM Freeman M M 60 (1821) Ger NS Carpenter Meth WesLaH|
Dir90|| Pleasa Carpenter|
MarIndx || 1879-096-164 CORKUM Freeman|
MarRec ||Freeman, widower, married 1879 Jul 7, Middle Lahave, age 60 (born 1819) Middle LaHave|
| || house chandler, living Mount Pleasant|
||son of Peter and Mary CORKUM, Farmer|
News || Lunenburg Progress, Freeman, married 1879 Jul 7, publ 22 Jul 1879 p 3 |
Cem 53 ||Freeman, born 1820 Aug 11 - died 1891 Jun 29, Map G-34|
|Census|| CORKUM Mary Ann F M 50 (1831) Engl Engl CofE WesLaH|
|MarrIndx|| 1879-096-164 NORMAN Mary A|
|Married|| Mary Ann NORMAN Widow married 1879 Jul 7 Middle LaHave age 49 b 1830 Plymouth, England|
| dau of James and Agnes NORMAN, coastal service|
|News|| Lunenburg Progress, Mrs Mary NORMAN, married 1879 Jul 7, publ 22 Jul 1879 p 3|
|Census|| NORMAN Foster M 15 (1866) Engl NS Farmers Son CofE WesLaH|
|Cem # 20 ||Foster Augustus born 1865 May 24 - died 1923 Aug 25|
| married to Clara Elizabeth born 1864 Nov 18 - died 1857 May 28|
|Will|| Foster A Act Book 6 - page 41 abt 1923|
|Census|| NORMAN William M 14(1867) Engl NS Farmers Son CofE WesLaH |
|Census|| NORMAN Alexander M 12 (1869)Engl NS CofE WesLaH|
|Census ||ZWICKER Mary F 21 (1860) Ger NS School Mistress CofE WesLaH|
This shows the makeup of Freeman’s household about 1880. The Census details are found on page 6 of the Conquerall Bank Polling District listings.
Here is how to decode the information on the six members of this family.
M-34A Freeman CORKUM
The 1881 Census tells us that Freeman was male, married, age 60 (1821 estimated birth year), of German descent, born in Nova Scotia, was a carpenter, church denomination was Methodist, and lived in West Dublin.
The 1890 County Directory tells us that he lived in Pleasantville and was a carpenter.
The Lunenburg County Marriage Index 1879-96-164 tells us that his was the 96th marriage registered in the Index in 1879 and details are found on page 164 of the register.
The Nova Scotia Marriage Register tells us that as a widower he was married 1879 Jul 7 in Middle Lahave, age 60 (1819 estimated birth year), and born in Middle LaHave. At the time of his marriage he was working as a house chandler and living in Mount Pleasant. He was the son of Peter and Mary CORKUM, farmer.
The Index to Lunenburg County Vital Statistics from Local Newspapers on Microfilm - pre 1900 tells us that details of the marriage were published 1879 Jul 22 on page 3 of the Lunenburg Progress .
He was buried in Lunenburg County Cemetery # 53 (The Cemetery Index of names gives this as the East LaHave Old Cemetery). The headstone tells us that he was born 1820 Aug 11 and died 1891 Jun 29. The exact location of this cemetery can be found on Map G-34 in the book Maps Associated With Lunenburg County Family History.
The Probated Will Index has no citation for him which means he died without a will.
M-34B Mary Ann CORKUM
The 1881 Census tells us that Mary Ann was female, married, age 50 (1831 estimated birth year), of English descent, born in England, church denomination was Church of England (Anglican), and she lived in West LaHave. Her maiden name is not given.
The Lunenburg County Marriage Index gives her name as Mary A NORMAN.
The Nova Scotia Marriage Register tells us that as a widow she was married as Mary Ann NORMAN, age 49 (1830 estimated birth year), and born in Plymouth, England to James and Agnes NORMAN where her father was employed in the costal service.
From the names of the next three boys, one would assume that she was their mother and her late husband’s family name was NORMAN. One would expect that her maiden name was something else. However, her parent’s name was also given as NORMAN. Perhaps she married a cousin?
The Index to Lunenburg County Vital Statistics from Local Newspapers on Microfilm - pre 1900 tells us that details of the marriage were published 1879 Jul 22 on page 3 of the Lunenburg Progress. It also tells us that she was married.
M-34C Foster NORMAN
The 1881 Census tells us that Foster was male, single, age 15 (1866 estimated birth year), of English descent, born in Nova Scotia, was a farmer’s son, church denomination was Church of England (Anglican), and he lived in West LaHave.
He was buried in Lunenburg County Cemetery # 20 (Bridgewater Brookside). The headstone tells us that his middle name is Augustus and he was born 1865 May 24 and died 1923 Aug 25. The exact location of this cemetery can be found on Map G-17 in the book “ Maps Associated With Lunenburg County Family History”. The headstone also shows that he was married to Clara Elizabeth born 1864 Nov 18 and died 1857 May 28. Her maiden name is not given. A daughter Clara is listed 1894 - 1946. This suggests that Foster married Clara Elizabeth before 1894. A search of the Marriage Index shows a Foster A NORMAN marrying in 1890.
The Probated Will Index shows that he had a will and it may be found in Act Book 6 - page 41 and was probated abt 1923.
M-34D William NORMAN
The 1881 Census tells us that William was male, single, age 14 (1867 estimated birth year), of English descent, born in Nova Scotia, was a farmer’s son, church denomination was Church of England (Anglican), and he lived in West LaHave.
M-34E Alexander NORMAN
The 1881 Census tells us that Alexander was male, single, age 12 (1869 estimated birth year), of English descent, born in Nova Scotia, church denomination was Church of England (Anglican), and he lived in West LaHave.
The Lunenburg County Marriage Index shows an Alexander NORMAN marrying in 1892.
M-34F Mary F ZWICKER
The 1881 Census tells us that Mary was female, single, age 21 (1860 estimated birth year), of German descent, born in Nova Scotia, working as a School Mistress, church denomination was Church of England (Anglican), and she lived in West LaHave.
The three NORMAN boys are presumably children of Mary Ann by a previous marriage. Mary F ZWICKER is probably a boarder.
For other information, such as previous marriage details for Freeman and Mary Ann, or subsequent locations for the three NORMANsorMary F, you would have to go to other sources, such as the Census of 1871, 1891, or 1901. For example, other information reveals that Mary Ann NORMAN was Freeman’s third wife. The search for these three ladies revealed that they were all named Mary (Mary Ann HUNTER and Mary Elizabeth PUBLICOVER), which complicated things until death and marriage records helped to sort things out.
The location of the house they all lived in can be found on Map W5.
Map W5 Simplified Map of West LaHave
You will notice that there is an F CORKUM near the top left of the map and another below the word COVE. The 1881 census has a Freeman CORKUM and Frederick CORKUM listed in West LaHave. How to tell which is which?
If one assumes that the Census taker made the records in order as he/she went down the road, then the sequence of family numbers should enable distinction. For these families, this assumption seems to be borne out. For the upper F CORKUM on the map, bracketed by B WAGNER and W WAGNER, we find in the Census that our Freeman CORKUM M-34 was bracketed by Benjamin WAGNER M-33 and William WAGNER M-35. For the lower F CORKUM on the map, bracketed by Rev A JORDAN and M FRASER, in the Census Frederick CORKUM M-42 was bracketed by Abraham JORDAN M-41 clergyman and Angus FRASER M-43. Thus we can be fairly confident that Freeman is the upper F CORKUM..
There is an “S.H.” at the top of the map. This stands for School House and may be where Mary ZWICKER taught.
Some numbers are definitely out of sequence: G SHANKLE on the map is George SHANKLE M-5 in the Census. This may be a fill in from being missed on the first pass.
Some names on the map do not show up in the Census as heads of households. The A EISENHAUER between B SHANKLE and G SHANKLE is not a head of household in the Census. However he may be Albert EISENHAUER M-29C age 24 fisherman found in the family of Benjamin SHANKLE M-29A.
There are also examples of individuals found in the Census but not on the Church maps. Although George LOHNES’s family number ( M-40) is amongst those for West LaHave (M-29 to M-45), he does not appear in the West LaHave community or elsewhere. Thus in the Index of Individuals and Index of Families, his community assignment is given as WesLaH?, i.e. tentative.